[SE03-HAB] Sustainable habitat and cities: Learning from the slum

DAY 2 – Thursday 28 June – 10:45-12:30

Swiss Tech | Room 3A | Level Garden

Session Leaders
 

Eléonore Labattut
École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland
eleonore.labattut@epfl.ch
 
Eléonore Labattut is responsible for the “sustainable habitat and cities” projects and researches of the UNESCO chair “Technologies for Development” at the Cooperation and Development Center (CODEV) at EPFL in Lausanne, Switzerland. She is an architect and holds a master degree in Geography (Paris Sorbonne). She is specialized in housing and urban post disaster reconstruction, and in participatory urban planning methodologies. She has consulted for international organizations such as American Red Cross, Norwegian Refugee Council, Caritas, CARE or Solidarités International.
 
 
Anie Bras Joseph
Université Quisqueya, Haiti
aniebrasjoseph@gmail.com
 
Anie Bras is a Research Fellow at Quisqueya University (UniQ), Port-au-Prince (Haiti). She heads the Center for Research in Urban Studies (CRAPU) and she also serve as Deputy Vice-Chancellor of Academic Affairs at UniQ. She earned her PhD in Environment and urbanism in 2010 from the National Institute of Applied Sciences of Lyon (France). She specializes in waste solid management. She is a regular member of the Haitian Association “Women, Science and Technology”.
 
Summary
 
Slums are present in all cities of the world, with a massive presence in the Global South. They are not at the margin of the contemporary process of urbanization; but are now fully part of the urban landscape, contributing to the identity and the urbanism of cities.
Regarding the slums as symptomatic of the ongoing transformations of the cities, the session will focus on the very heart of the urban fabric. We invite communications having a critical look on this complex reality, open to social, environmental and economic dimensions as well as at the constructive and spatial aspects of slums. It will allow to recognize the key actors of this central process of urbanization, among them slum’s dwellers, and highlight their innovations, to define from the South priority actions in urban development. What can we learn from the slums, and how to improve the cities for all their dwellers?
Panelists and Abstracts
 
Radio Enabling Period Talk: Girls from city Slum opening the window for the rest
Dr. Birupakshya Dixit 1, Mr. Ananta Prasad1, India. Mr. Eko Prasetyo, UK1.
1Practical Action, India
 
Presenting author’s email address: birupakshya.dixit@practicalaction.org
 
Biography of Presenting Author: Birupakshya Dixit is a Development Professional and currently works as Coordinator-India Programme at Practical Action, is an International Charity. Birupakshya’s primary work projects are linked Water and Sanitation, Energy Access, Food and Agriculture and Disaster Risk Reduction. For the last few years he has been involved in different projects related to Fecal Sludge Management which influence the local government to replicate the models in the state.
 
Abstract
“Sunalo Sakhi” is an innovative and small demonstrative project to understand the issues of shyness of adolescent girls in managing the menstruation days. The project started in 2016 in 15 slums of Bhubaneswar and then spread across to 45 more slums before being replicated to further 20 slums in neighboring city, Cuttack. Many of the girls were suffering and using unhygienic methods to manage the periods, and ultimately this was affecting their health. Neither the peers were able to provide them with accurate information and education nor did they have the confidence to ask their mothers and siblings. The project is therefore focused on educating adolescent girls on menstrual hygiene. Many development organizations have very comprehensive projects on and around this issue. What distinguishes Sunalo Sakhi is the multi facet campaigning through radio shows, audio podcasting, individual counseling, focused group discussion, and film screenings in slums and in nearby high-schools.
 
Citizen Mapping: Using Common Geospatial Technologies to Map Informal Settlements in São Paulo, Brazil
Vitor Pessoa Colombo1

Vitor Pessoa Colombo1

1 Teto – São Paulo, Brazil

 
Presenting author’s email address: vitor.pessoacolombo@gmail.com
Biography of Presenting Author: Vitor is a Brazilian architect who graduated in Switzerland (B.Sc. École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, M.Sc. Accademia di Architettura di Mendrisio) and since march 2016 he has collaborated with the NGO Teto in São Paulo in order to develop citizen mapping processes that provide the necessary geographic information to support humanitarian action in socio-economically vulnerable human settlements.
Abstract
The present paper focuses on the work conducted by the NGO Teto in São Paulo (Brazil), where a series of datasets providing geographic information on slums is being elaborated thanks to recent geospatial technologies well suited for a non-specialist, volunteered workforce. The objective here is to contribute to the present debate over potential uses and limitations of geographic data collected and elaborated by engaged citizens who are not specialists in the field, focusing on the possible social outcomes of such methods. Two case studies are presented to illustrate how new technologies facilitate citizen mapping, and how the latter may support humanitarian action in precarious settlements by providing relevant spatial information. Ultimately, this study argues for citizen-driven initiatives and participative processes as useful tools to complement authoritative data, specially in the Global South where an informational gap distinguishes the formal from the informal sectors of the cities.
 
Sustainable Habitat and Cities: Learning from Slums of Indian Metropolitan City

Shailendra Mandal1

1 National Institute of Technology Patna, India

 
Presenting author’s email address: shailendra@fulbrightmail.org
 
Biography of Presenting Author (80 words): Shailendra Kumar Mandal is a registered architect and city planner who is also an Assistant Professor and Researcher at National Institute of Technology (An Institutions of National Importance under MHRD, Govt. of India) Patna, India. His professional and academic works focus in examining the linkage between water sustainability, city adaptation, urban resilience, sustainable habitat and role of different technologies and Institutions to address it. He has been awarded Fulbright Fellowship to work on ‘Urban Resiliency’ at University of Arizona, USA.
 
Abstract
There is a lack of knowledge about urban poverty in developing countries specifically about their current physical state and slums progress overtime. This research explores the tenure security and social mobility in the context of sustainable habitat and cities in Indian metropolitan city. These two aspects of the knowledge of Indian poor who lives in the slum of the metropolitan city that have yet to be fully explored.
This research is a serious attempt to explicitly extricate the impact of different kinds of social capital on social mobility. It can help in predicting how slum house hold status will progress over the time. Another aspect that this research looks at is tenure security in the Indian metropolitan city where evictions happen in unofficial settlements, and exploring about how secure these residents feel about their tenure.
 
Mass Illegal and Informal Construction as a Consequence of Urban Development in Serbia
Slavka Zeković1, Tamara Maričić1
1 Institute of Architecture and Urban & Spatial Planning of Serbia, Serbia
 
Presenting author’s email address: zeksbmv@eunet.rs
 
Biography of Presenting Author:
Slavka Zeković, scientific adviser at the Institute of Architecture and Urban & Spatial Planning of Serbia.
She was a researcher at the Yugoslav Institute of Urbanism and Housing in Belgrade. She obtained her PhD in Regional Industrial Development and Planning at the University of Belgrade. She has participated in several international research projects in urban planning and urban development and is a member of the Serbian Engineering Chamber, the Serbian Association of Spatial Planners, and the Serbian Commission for Plans.
 
Abstract:
Paper examines phenomenon of mass illegal and informal building in Serbia in the socialist and post-socialist context. During the 1960s illegal and informal building occurred as an alternative way of meeting housing needs due to restrictive rules for getting construction permit, high housing demand and inability of the socialist institutional model to provide affordable housing. In the post-socialist period, vast illegal and informal housing construction, as the key driving force for accommodating numerous immigrants after the break-up of SFRY in 1990s, has intensified alongside immense corruption of administration. The conversion of the land-use rights and tenancy rights to private ownership, and lifting of the ban on urban construction land transactions initiated a new wave of illegal and informal construction. The “real-estate bubble growth” manifested via 2.05million illegally constructed buildings (2017), including different types of auxiliary facilities (∑ 4.7million). From 1990-2015, four legalisation laws were adopted, but proved to be ineffective.
 
High-mast Lighting as an Adequate Way of Lighting Pedestrian Paths in Informal Settlements?
David M. Kretzer1
1Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
 
Presenting author’s email address: david.kretzer@istp.ethz.ch
 
Biography of Presenting Author: David Kretzer grew up in Germany and received an MSc degree in Light and Lighting from The Bartlett (University College London) in 2009. Subsequently he worked as a luminaire product manager in Austria, as a lighting designer and lecturer in China, and as a product manager in Switzerland until 2017. Two of his lighting technology inventions have been registered as patents. David is currently pursuing his PhD at the ISTP (ETH Zurich), where he is investigating informal settlement lighting.
 
Abstract
Lighting of pedestrian paths fulfils crucial needs for informal settlement dwellers. A common technological approach in some countries to address those needs is to provide high-mast luminaires. It will be shown by computer calculations that those luminaires are unlikely to be able to create adequate lighting conditions in common informal settlements. In contrast, bottom-up lighting approaches found in Colombia will be presented and discussed. It will be argued that those approaches have certain strength over high-mast lighting. On the other hand, it will be shown that there are still technological deficits associated with them that require further investigation.