DAY 1 – Monday 2 May – 15:30-17:00
Swiss Tech | Room 2B | Level Garden
The Energy and Resources Institute, India
Mini Govindan is a Research Fellow at the Social Transformation Division of The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) in New Delhi, India. She earned her PhD in Development Studies in 2007 from the Institute for Social and Economic Change in Bangalore. She specializes in gender analysis and social impact assessment of water and energy policy. She has consulted extensively for the Indian Government and international organizations such as UN Women, UNDP, World Bank, DANIDA, SDC, IUCN and DFID.
The commercialization or outright privatization of water, energy, health and sanitation services was justified in much of the Global North and South by the unsatisfactory performance of state-regulated and controlled regimes.
The rationale behind such reforms was that efficiency, commercial pricing, and greater involvement by the private sector would reduce pressure on national and local government budgets and create a profitable sector, which in turn would finance necessary investments for improvements in service and access. There is growing evidence around the world that such reform had been designed more to address macroeconomic concerns and to satisfy donor conditionalities, and with less consideration for social justice and equity issues. In order to ensure that the technologies and infrastructures that can make the biggest differences in the lives of poor people are developed and disseminated, there is a clear need for governments to either be involved directly, or at the very least, to put incentives and subsidy structures in place that direct private investment to areas that would otherwise not be prioritized. We are consequently witnessing a trend towards remunicipalization of basic services in some countries. Promising hybrid models (public-private and multiple-stakeholder) are also emerging in many parts of the world.
In this session, we showcase examples and case studies from developing countries and emerging economies of energy initiatives that are developed solely by the public sector, or through collaborations between public, quasi-public and non-state actors that perform roles in line with their comparative advantages.
This session should be of interest to anyone interested in energy development and dissemination strategies that generate more equitable and sustainable outcomes, including, academic and non-academic researchers, public and private enterprises in on and off-grid energy technology development and dissemination, donor agencies, development banks, labor unions, NGOs and other civil society organizations.
Sunil Dhingra, The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), India, Rural Electrification and Livelihood Generation for Women Enterprises in Rural India: Experience of Implementing Two-stage Biomass Gasifiers [PDF Full Paper]
In India, as per 2011 census, nearly 44% of rural households do not have access to electricity, and those who have access suffer from unreliable electricity supply affecting education, income generation and access to information. For lighting one-third of households rely on kerosene, which provides poor quality lights and is damaging to health. Lack of access and reliable supply undermines the ability of the households and micro/small enterprises to move out of the vicious cycle of energy poverty. In rural India, several of these enterprises are owned and managed by women entrepreneurs and Self-help Groups (SHGs), which were established for income generating activities and empowerment of women. In 2005, Government of India initiated a large national rural electrification programme to provide electricity to all village and households. It has been recognized that grid supply may not be feasible or cost effective for every village, and hence due attention has been given to renewable based Decentralized Distributed Generation (DDG) systems such as biomass gasifiers. This paper provides insights regarding experience of developing two-stage biomass gasifier for Indian conditions through an interesting technology transfer and intellectual property rights sharing agreement and its field implementation through partnerships with the state government and community based organizations in the State of Odisha and Madhya Pradesh. This technology will provide reliable electricity to women groups owned livelihood activities, increasing the income generated by them, and electrify rural households.
Ravneet Kaur, Panjab University, India, An Evaluation of Jawaharlal Nehru Solar Mission (India) with Special Reference to Solar Photovoltaic Applications [PDF Full Paper]
The Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) is an initiative taken by Government of India and State Governments through Ministry of New and Renewable Energy and State Nodal Agencies to promote environment friendly sustainable growth to address India’s energy security challenge and meet the needs of approx 1.30 billion population . The main objective of JNNSM is to generate resources for installation of Renewable energy devices and create favourable environment for the diffusion of solar energy at both Grid and Off- Grid level. The success of the mission depends on the subsidy structure, role of implementing institutions, functioning of the standardised systems and society’s awareness and knowledge level. The research paper has evaluated the performance of JNNSM in India regarding dissemination of photovoltaic applications. The paper presents data and develops quantitative metrics to analyse its implementation throughout India.
Olimjon Saidmamatov, Urgench State University, Uzbekistan, Is Green Fiscal Policy as a Driver for Green Energy Economy: Empirical Evidence from Developing Countries [PDF Full Paper]
Energy is fundamental to human society, social development and economic growth (WEC, 2013). Global energy demand is projected to grow by around 45 percent by 2030: more than three-quarters of the increased demand will come from developing and transition countries (IEA, 2008). The paper attempts to research the contribution of green investments to electricity generation from renewable sources. Although, RE can bring socio-economic and environmental benefits, its implementation faces a number of obstacles, especially in non-OECD countries (Brunnschweiler, 2009) despite its socio-economic and environmental benefits. One of these obstacles is financing: underdeveloped financial sectors are unable to efficiently channel loans to RE producers. Churchill and Saunders (1989) argues that renewable energy projects have limited access to financing because RE projects compete against fossil fuel projects, which have a longer track record, relatively lower up-front costs and often relatively favorable treatment. Brunnschweiler (2010) suggests that a more highly-developed financial sector will have a positive impact on the development of the renewable energy sector. After analyzing 155 non-OECD countries, it is implied that without efficient green fiscal policy resulting to increase FDI, net flows in GDP, renewable energy is unlikely to reach its full potential in developing world.
Rahul Shukla, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, India, “Construction” of a Sustainable Energy Source: The Case of Jatropha in Indian Context [PDF Full Paper]
Biofuels have caught the attention of the world as a source of renewable energy which can provide energy security, advance rural development, mitigate climate change, and foster international trade. India developed the National Mission on Biodiesel (NMB) as a rural development policy option to produce biodiesel from Jatropha and promoted it as a pro-poor and pro-growth initiative. The study will attempt to examine the emergence, trajectory, and the consequences of the NMB by opting the case of a public sector research institute involvement in developing and disseminating the technologies for sustainable energy in India. The study will also locate the trajectory of an object, which has been constructed into an industrial crop from a bush of semi-arid regions. What are the epistemic practices adopted by various actors in this construction? How is such knowledge diffused from laboratory to farmland? And, where does new cultivation get (the) space? These research questions will be examined within the theoretical framework of Science and Technology Studies (STS); where social, political, economic, cultural, institutional, ideological, etc. factors will account for production of knowledge, its accessibility, and application. Sources of secondary data viz. academic journals, books, policy documents will be employed to achieve the research objectives.