Environnements, gestion des ressources

7.2004 – 6.2007


An inexpensive method to validate road transport emission inventories

Partner Institutions

Institution: Universidad de los Andes
Department: Civil and Environmental Engineering
Address: Carrera 85B #17A – 11 CITEC
Phone: +57 (1) 339 49 49 Ext. 2811
Direction: Diego Echeverry, PhD
Colleague: Luis Belalcazar


Institute: Institut des sciences et technlogies de l’environnement (ISTE)
Laboratoire de pollution atmosphérique du sol (LPAS)
Faculty: Environnement Naturel, Architectural et Construit (ENAC)
Address: Bât GR, Ecublens
1015 Lausanne, Suisse
Phone: +41 21 – 693 36 20
Direction: Prof. Hubert van den Bergh
:Colleagues: Alain Clappier
Erika Zárate


The population growth is a primary force driving environmental problems. More than 60 million people are added to cities world-wide each year. Most of this expansion occurs in the urban areas of developing countries, aggravating problems such as infrastructure development (increasingly overcrowded transportation systems) and environmental pollution. During the last decades, air quality has been strongly deteriorated in a large number of megapoles and optimal emission control strategies must therefore be worked out as soon as possible. Unfortunately, adopting pollution control measures is very expensive, and the expected results may not necessarily be as efficient as predicted. The fact that the processes involved are very complex and highly non-linear (dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere, chemical transformations, etc), complicates this problem. Because numerical models take into account this complexity they evolves as the only scientifically reasonable approach to control air pollution. The numerical models upon which the air pollution control legislation is based needs as an essential input, and as precisely as possible, the amount of pollutants emitted in the city. Among all the pollution sources in a city the road transport emissions are often the most important source. The traditional methodologies to estimate such emissions, when applied to developing countries, are inaccurate, due to the lack of information and to the differences in certain habits of the people, such as the driving cycle, the type of vehicles that are used, etc.

In this project we search for an innovative and inexpensive technique that allows us to validate the calculated road transport emissions. In a first step, a technique based on « inverse modeling » using a combination of air quality modeling and measuring will be developed to evaluate the emissions in a street canyon (also know as busy road). In a second step, such emissions will be extended to the entire fleet of such city, and modeling of the pollutants released will be done, aiming to test abatement strategies to improve air quality. The technique will be tested for Bogota (Colombia), which was found to be a very interesting case study due to the size of the city and to the prelimenary studies that we have comlpeted onthis case. The technique will be developed in such a way so that it can be applied in future research on air pollution in other megapoles around the world.

Publications du Labo LPAS – Modeling group


  • Haurie, A., J. Kubler, A. Clappier, H. van den Bergh, 2004: A metamodeling approach for integrated assessment of air quality policies, Environmental Modeling and Assessment , 9 . [pdf, 690 kb]

  • Couach, O., F. Kirchner, R. Jiménez, I. Balin, S. Perego, and H. Van den Bergh, A development of ozone abatement strategies for the Grenoble area using modeling and indicators, Atmos. Env. , 38 , 1425-1436 [pdf, 708 kb]


  • Martilli, A., Y. A. Roulet, M. Junier, F. Kirchner, M. Rotach, and A. Clappier, 2003: On the impact of urban surface exchange parameterisations on air quality simulations: the Athens case, Atmospheric Environment , 37 , 4217-4231 [ pdf, 577 kb ]

  • Couach, O., I. Balin, R. Jiménez, P. Ristori, F. Kirchner, S. Perego, V. Simeonov, B. Calpini, and H. Van den Bergh, 2003: Investigation ot the ozone and planetary boundary layer dynamics on the topographically-complex area of Grenoble by measurements and modeling, Atmos. Chemistry and Physics. , 3 , 549-562 [pdf, 4.48 Mb]

  • Martilli, A., 2003: A Two-Dimensional numerical study of the impact of a city on atmospheric circulation and pollutant dispersion in a coastal environment, Boundary Layer Meteorol. , 108 , 91-119.

  • Thunis, P., S. Galmarini , A. Martilli , A. Clappier , S. Andronopoulos , J. Bartzis , M Vlachogianni , K. deRidder , N. Moussiopoulos , P. Sahm , R. Almbauer , P. Sturm , D. Oettl , S. Dierer , H. Schluezen, 2003: MESOCOM: An inter-comparison exercise of mesoscale flow models applied to an ideal case simulation, Atmos. Environ. , 37 , 363-382.


  • Martilli, A., A. Neftel, G. Favaro, F. Kirchner, S. Sillman, and, A. Clappier, 2002: Simulation of the ozone formation in the northern part of the Po Valley, J. of Geophys. Res. , 107 (D22), 8195.

  • Palacios, M., A. Martilli, F. Kirchner, A. Clappier, F. Martìn and, M. E. Rodrìguez,2002: Response of selected chemical mechanisms in effects of ozone control strategies applied to the Great Madrid Area, Atmos. Environ. , 36 , 5323-5333.

  • Martilli, A., 2002: Numerical study of urban impact on the boundary layer structure: sensitivity to wind speed and urban morphology, and rural soil moisture, J. Appl. Meteorol. , 41 , 1247-1267.

  • Martilli, A., A. Clappier, and, M. W. Rotach, 2002: An urban surfaces exchange parameterisation for mesoscale models, Boundary Layer Meteorol. , 104 , 261-304. [ pdf, 544 kb ]

  • Palacios, M., A. Martilli, F. Kirchner, A. Clappier, F. MartÌn and, M. E. RodrÌguez, 2002: Photochemical modeling of summer ozone episodes in the Great Madrid Area by using different chemical mechanisms, Int. J. Environment and Pollution , 18 , 243-259.

  • Kuebler, J., A.G. Russell, A. Hakami, A. Clappier and H. van den Bergh 2002: Episode Selection for Ozone Modelling and Control Strategies Analysis on the Swiss Plateau, Atmos. Environ. , 36 , 2817-2830.

  • Martilli A., P. Thunis, F. Müller, A. G. Russell, and, A. Clappier, 2002: An optimised method to couple meteorological and photochemical models, Environ. Mod. Soft. , 17 , 169-178. [ pdf, 569 kb ]

  • Couach, O., I. Balin, R. Jimenez, S. Perego, F. Kirchner, P. Ristori, V. Simeonov, P. Quaglia, V. Vestri, A. Clappier, B. Calpini, and H. van den Bergh, Study of a photochemical episode over the Grenoble area using a mesoscale model and intensive measurements, Pollution Atmosphérique , 174 , 277-295 [pdf, 740 kb]

  • Couach, O., I. Balin, and M.B. Personnaz, GRENOPHOT project – Summer photochemical smog study over the Grenoble area, Lettre PIGB-PMRC , 14 , 39-46 [online version]

SSIE – LPAS : Modelisation Group
Universidad de los Andes, facultad de Ingeniería